Health Promotion Essay
This is an essay about a thirty year old woman called Molly who is a little bit anaemic, recently gave birth to her second born called Sebastian. Molly leaves with her husband called James and their three year old baby called Eric. The purpose and aim of this essay is to define health and health promotion, a brief discussion about Mollyâ€™s anaemic. The key concepts in this essay will be defined such as health and health promotion. A rational for my plan will also be discussed as well as the dimension of Mollyâ€™s health such as her biomedical model oh health, her psychological model of health, her social model of health and also her psychological factors which may affect her wellness such as cognitive factors, behavioural factors and environmental factors which can be use to enhance Molly and her familyâ€™s health. My rational for choosing to write about Molly is that, from research I did, I found out that anaemia is one of the most common pathological condition encountered in primary care. Its consequences, although mild in most cases, are potentially very sever. It was said in August 2009 that about 12,500 have anaemia, and in UK 1 in 7 children have mild iron deficiency anaemia. As this is due to the low red meat levels in our current diet, for similar reasons many women of menstruation age also iron deficient. First of all, health is the absence of illness, by Naidoo and Wills(2000), whilst Dines and Cridd (1993) argued that health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity. However, the World Health Organisation (WHO 1998) defined as the extent to which an individual is able to realize expectations and fulfil needs and to change or cope with the environment. Personally I think being healthy , is the absence of illness. Blaxter (1990) undertook two studies on how various people defined their own health; one of a large side view of the population and one from a low social class disadvantaged families. She discovered that a negative definition of illness was used, among people defining health as the absence of diseases. However, there were clear differences between the various age groups and between sexes. Younger males likely to highlight issues linked to strength and fitness, while older males stressed mental well-being. Younger women focus on vitality and the ability to cope in various circumstances, while older women talk about satisfaction, but also include wider issues such as social relationships. Howlett et al. (1992) used Blaxterâ€™s data in a more comprehensive examination of ethnic differences in defining health. Their results recommended that there were differences among the various ethnic groups, with people of Asian origin defining health in a practical or functional way, while people from African-Caribbean origin were more likely to include fundamentals of health, although the research outcome for the definition of health was not clear however, health is not a simple idea; but quite multifaceted, among different groups defining it different ways, this means that, some ethnics think that being physically fit means you are healthy whiles other ethnic groups also think that when a person is fit and mentally sick means to them that the person is unhealthy. According to the WHO (1998), health is a process of enabling individual to increase control over and improve their health. However, Tannahill (1996) explained health promotion in greater detail and defined health promotion as health education, health promotion and the prevention of illness. Health promotion is the prevention of ill health and the reduction in number known risk factors for disease, as well as the increase in social capital and the empowerment of individuals and communities. Empowerment is difficult to define and has been used to mean different things. Rissell (1994) (cited by Naidoo and Wills 2001) describes empowerment as the holy grail of health promotion, defining it as process through which people become strong enough to participate, share in the control of and influence events and institutions affecting their livesâ€™ Tones (1995) (cited by Naidoo and Wills) argues that, for individuals to be empowered, they may need to acquire information or decision-making skills and has consistently do my homework argued that health education is the mainstay of population health promotion, health promotion will empower Molly to be aware of the dangers of his health. Promoting health therefore means focusing not just on preventing disease but also on peopleâ€™s social and mental health, therefore health promotion may include preventive activities, education, community-based social action, the creation of healthy environments and policies for example: The recent health strategy for England, Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation (DOH, 1999), (cited by Naidoo and Wills 2001)â€œsuggests that the public, the community and government has a role to play in health improvement and these roles has been identified as (a)Government and national players assessing risks, communicating these risks clearly to the public and ensuring supportive environments for health. b) Communities working in partnership with other agencies to provide better Information and servicesâ€. (Naidoo and Wills 2001 p280) The 1846 Public Health Act included that local authorities are require to provide clean water supplies and sewage disposable system, the no smoking policy in public areas etc. Tannahill (1985) (cited by Naidoo and Wills 2001) provided some examples of recognized expressive models of health promotion as prevention, health education and health protection. First and foremost, I will talk about Mollyâ€™s biomedical health which is Anaemia. Biomedical model of health and can be defined mainly as the absence of disease. â€œAnaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells (RBCs) is reduced or there is a reduction in the level of haemoglobin in the bloodâ€. Molly acquired her anaemia in her pregnancy since anaemia is associated with pregnancy in a serious health problem; it is also an important public health problem worldwide and the most vulnerable group are pregnant women like Molly. Molly being anaemic could be her iron deficiency which is probably the most common and important because, the physiological changes associated with pregnancy exert a demand of additional iron, which is needed for foetus. Mollyâ€™s health can promoted here through health education by the health practitioners about the consumption of food that are rich in vitamins, minerals and elements specifically identified as therapeutic for this condition. This education can gradually help Molly promote her health. Because health education plays an important role in health promotions as it covers all aspect of activities that help improve the health status of people and their surroundings. Ewles and Sinnet (2003) suggested that health promotion is the action of empowering individuals to enable them takes control over their lives, in order to improve their health and lifestyle. Naidoo and will (2000), further add that health promotion is frequently seen as prevention of disease, often through targeting groups with an increased like hood of developing specific disease. The leaflet can be displayed at health clinic like GP surgeries, well woman clinic and hospital reception and wards so that health professionals can use it to educate, council, teach and empower women and also, be well informed. It can also be displayed at social clubs, schools and super markets so that everyone can get one and not necessarily go to their GP surgeries or hospital before being able to get one. The leaflet has been designed in a way that every individual will be able to read and understand. I believe it is very important to be brief and straight forward when designing a health promotion leaflet Again, I will look at her psychological model of health. This is post natal depression. Psychological health is the effect of the mind and the relationship between physical activity and general aspect of psychological well-being for example smoking, alcohol, diet, exercise etc. Mollyâ€™s postnatal depression can be of a combination of many factors. (Physical, psychological and social). Molly can be depressed in so many ways; one can be due to the fact that her having another baby will be the biggest physical, emotional and social factor she will ever experience. Molly preparing adequately to meet her new born baby can be difficult and sometimes laced with unrealistic expectation. If Mollyâ€™s expectations are not are not met and also caring for her new baby proves to be difficult, she will tend to blame herself. However the postnatal depression can make Molly depress if her baby experiences severe baby blues, or having difficulties in her marriage with her husband and or lack of practical and emotional support or being the perfect mother and being ill prepared for the reality of parenting. Moreover, Molly having a negative birth experience, experiencing unexpected complication, like baby born prematurely or unwell and lastly her new born demanding, having difficulties in feeding, experiencing colic and or being frequently unsettled. all these factors will contribute to make Molly depress. Mollyâ€™s health can be improving her through many different types of therapy and some of these are cognitive behavior therapy. This is where by a person thinks negatively about themselves. E.g. like I am a failure and no one loves me. It could be Mollyâ€™s thinks negatively about herself. Also interpersonal therapy, psychologist and psychiatrist. Lastly, I will talk about her Social model of health which is isolation. the social model of health watchfully considers how bigger determinants than the occurrence or absence of disease have an impact on peopleâ€™s health for example: poor housing, air pollution, poor drinking water leading to sickness like cholera. Some of these bigger determinants are a personâ€™s culture and belief method or levels of relative income, access to housing, education achievement and opportunities as well as the wider environmental. Molly feels isolated due to the fact that she has got a new baby and would not get the chance to meet her friends and family as she used to do before. Below is a care plan done for Molly on how she can promote her health? Needs/problem|Health promotion Approach/strategy|Activity| Anaemia (Biomedical Health)|Â·Identify the typical haemoglobin levels that define anaemia in children/adolescents and post-pubertal men and women. |Â·Eating iron rich foods and red meat.Â·To take vitamin B complex supplement.| Post natal depression (Psychological factor)|Â·Assess individual to see if they are under stress, depressed or also thinking about suicidal.|Â·Routine screening using the EPDS which is offered to delivered others prior to discharge.| Isolation (social factor)|Â·Check individual risk factors |Â·ReassuranceÂ·EncouragementÂ·EmpathyÂ·Empowerment| This care plan has been done on how Mollyâ€™s health can be improved. The Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2004) talks about promoting patients interest, by helping them gain access to their health care by providing them with the necessary information and support to their relevant needs, impact knowledge in order to develop skills and make an informed choice about their health behaviour (tones and tilford, 1994). Health promotion brings awareness of obesity and its associated health risks that cause early mortality. Most individual see the challenges to their need to change but refuse to because they donâ€™t see the need to , due to still perceived advantages, in this case people need to be motivated to give some thoughts to enable them do something about their behaviour, and if possible set up an action plan with a possible reward system put in place to maintain a successful change in behaviour and to avoid relapse, though there may be occasional relapse to earlier stage (Prochashka and Diclemente, 1984). In summary, irrespective of health promotion strategies and models adopted, health promotion is an effective mean of educating, helping people understand their behaviour and how it can affect their health. This care plan can be useful tool to all health care professional involved in health promotion and because care plan alone cannot have the greatest impact on people behaviour. It is therefore important to advise them on the health risk associated with being anaemic and encourage them make their own choice for a healthier lifestyle. REFERENCES Becker M. (1974) The health belief model and personal behaviour. Throfare New Jersey: Slack. Berkman LF, Glass T. Social integration, social networks, social support, and health. In: Berkman LF, Kawachi I, eds. Social Epidemiology. New York: Oxford; 2000. Blaxter et al. (1996). How to research. Buckingham: Open University Press. Downie, R.S., Tannahill, C. & Tannahill, A. (1996). Health promotion: models and values. (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications. Ewles L, and Simnet I (2003) promoting Health ; A Practical Guide. 5th edition. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall. House JS. Work stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1981. Kemm J, and Close A. (1995) Health Promotion: Theory and practice London: Macmillan press. Lincoln KS. Social Support, negative social interactions, and psychological well-being. Soc Serv Rev 2000;(June):231â€“552. Naidoo J, Wills J. (2000) Health Promotion Foundations for Practice. 2nd edition. London: Bailliere Tindall. Naidoo, J and Wills, J. (2001). Health promotion. Naidoo and Wills. Health studies An Introduction. London: PALGRAVE. P 275-290. Nurising and Midwifery Council (2004) Code of Professional Conduct. London: NMC Tones K, and Tilford S. (1994) Health Education: Effectiveness, Efficiency Chapman Hall. and Equity. 2nd edition. London: Chapman Hall. Umberson D. Family status and health behaviors: social control as a dimension of social integration. J Health Soc Behav1987;28: 306â€“19. World Health Organisation (1998) Education for Health, A Manul on Health Education in Primary Health Care. Geneva: WHO. Â·Check individual risk factors
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